Natural Language Processing (NLP)?

by Varun Chawla

27th Nov, 2019

Natural language processing (NLP) helps computers figure out and interpret human language by breaking down the elemental pieces of speech.

What is Natural Language Processing (NLP)?

Natural Language Processing, or NLP, concentrate on communication between computers and human languages. NLP is a sector that brings together computer science, artificial intelligence, and linguistics.

Computers are great at handling structured data such as database tables and spreadsheets. But human language is especially diversified and complex, and often far from tightly-structured. Human language interval across hundreds of languages and accents, with large sets of grammar rules, syntaxes, terms, and slang.

Homonyms, or words that are spelled and sound similar but carry different meanings, create an interesting NLP problem. "Paris Hilton listens to Paris Hilton at the Paris Hilton" is a sentence that native English speakers don't have too much trouble parsing but creates a complicated NLP problem. When does "Paris" refer to a person, and when does it signify a hotel's location in France?

Natural Language Processing grant computers to connect with humans in their own language by pulling meaningful data from loosely-structured text or speech. NLP helps scale language-related tasks. This is what makes it possible for computers to read text (or hear speech), interpret that text or speech, and determine what to do with the information.

NLP helps to resolve ambiguity in language by adding a numeric structure to large datasets. This arrangement makes speech recognition and text analytics potential.

How Does Natural Language Processing (NLP) Work?

At its core, NLP maintains computers figure out and even interact with human speech. Natural language processing relies on techniques ranging from statistical machine learning methods to various algorithmic approaches.

Due to the natural fluctuation in human speech, voice and text-based data quality vary widely. This broad spectrum of approaches leveraged by NLP allows for a wide range of applications.

Common Use Cases For Natural Language Processing

One common application of NLP is a chatbot. If a user opens an online business chat to troubleshoot or ask a question, a computer responds in a manner that mimics a human. Frequently the user doesn’t even know he or she is chatting with an algorithm.

That chatbot is trained using thousands of conversation logs, i.e. big data. A language handling line in the PC framework approaches an information base (source substance) and information stockpiling (association history and NLP investigation) to concoct an answer. Big data and the integration of big data with machine learning allow developers to create and train a chatbot.

A language handling line in the PC framework approach an information base (source substance) and

Natural language processing can also be used to process free form text and analyze the sentiment of a large group of social media users, such as Twitter followers, to determine whether the target group response is bad, good, or neutral. The procedure is designated "sentiment analysis" and can without much of a stretch give brands and associations an expansive perspective on how an intended interest group reacted to a promotion, item, news story, and so forth.

Other Applications for NLP include:

  • Extracting individuals’ names or company names from textual resources.
  • Grouping forum discussions together by topics.
  • Find discussions where people are mentioned but don't participate in the discussion.
  • Linking entities.

Natural Language Processing tasks serve to:

  • Break language into shorter pieces of data.

  • Build an understanding of the various data.

  • Explore how the factors of language work together to create meaning.

You may have dabbled in natural language processing yourself if you ever had to diagram a sentence in school. Tagging multiple elements of speech, detecting which language is actually spoken or written, or identifying semantic relationships between words are all core NLP tasks.

Image result for nlp

Content distribution, topic modeling, sentiment analysis, speech-to-text transcription, and text-to-speech conversion all leverage these core NLP tasks.

Four Techniques Used in NLP Analysis

There are many accesses to natural language analysis — some very difficult. Four fundamental, generally used techniques in NLP analysis are:

  • Lexical Analysis — Lexical analysis groups stream of letters or sounds from source code into basic units of meaning, called tokens. These tokens are then used by a language compiler to implement computer instructions, such as a chatbot responding to a question.

  • Syntactic Analysis — Syntactic analysis is the way towards analyzing the words in a sentence for language, using a parsing algorithm, then arranging the words in a way that shows the relationship among them. Parsing algorithms break the words down into smaller parts—strings of natural language symbols—then analyze these strings of symbols to determine if they conform to a set of established grammatical rules.

  • Semantic Analysis — Semantic analysis associates gathering the meaning of a sentence, called the logical form, from possible parses of the syntax stage. It associates understanding the relationship between words, such as semantic relatedness — i.e. when different words are used in similar ways.

  • Pragmatic Analysis — Pragmatic analysis is the process of discovering the meaning of a sentence based on context. It pursues to grasp the ways humans produce and comprehend meaning from text or human speech. Pragmatic analysis in NLP would be the task of teaching a computer to understand the meaning of a sentence in different real-life situations.